Chapter 10 Lecture Outline


10.1 Artificial Sweeteners: Fooled by Molecular Shape


10.2 VSEPR Theory: The Five Basic Shapes

Molecular Shapes Website

Shapes (Balloons, Computer, Chalkboard, Bond Angles)

  1. Octahedral, SF6
  2. jpeg, pdb)

  3. Trigonal Bipyramid, PCl5(jpeg, pdb)
  4. Tetrahedral, CH4(jpeg, pdb)
  5. Trigonal Planar, BF3(jpeg, pdb)
  6. Linear
    1. I2
    2. HCl (jpeg, pdb)
    3. CO2 (jpeg, pdb)


10.3 VSEPR Theory: The Effect of Lone Pairs

  1. NH3 (jpeg, pdb)
  2. H2O(jpeg, pdb)
  3. CO2 (jpeg, pdb)
  4. CH2O


10.4 VSEPR Theory: Predicting Molecular Geometries

  1. Geometry of Rhodopsin

  2. Geometry of DNA from the Wilson Group

  3. Geometry of DNA
    1. Single strand stick
    2. Single strand sphere
    3. Single strand PDB
    4. Double strand stick
    5. Double strand sphere
    6. Double strand PDB

10.5 Molecular Shape and Polarity


10.6 Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical bond

Covalent bond as overlap
  1. H2 (Overhead)
  2. HF (overhead)


10.7 Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

  • How to explain bond angles in CH4

  • Hybridization of Orbital Wavefunctions Wilson Group; Local Access
    1. Orbital wavefunction on board
    2. Orbital wavefunction on overhead
    3. Energy level diagram
    4. Explain Methane hybridization ( Internet © Saunders, 1997) and bonding ( Internet © Saunders, 1997)

  • Examples
    Geometry Compound Hybridization JPEG Image PDB Structure Example
    Linear H2   jpeg pdb  
    Linear BeH2 sp jpeg pdb C2H2
    Trigonal Planar BH3 sp2 jpeg pdb C2H4
    Tetrahedral CH4 sp3 jpeg pdb C2H6

  • Molecular Geometry and Hybridization Examples
    1. H2O
    2. C2H6
    3. C2H4
    4. C2H2
    5. CO2
    6. NH3
    7. NH4+
    8. BH3
    9. BCl3
    10. N2
    11. CH3CH2OH
    12. CH3NH2

    10.8 Molecular Orbital Theory: Electron Delocalization

    1. LOX Demo ( Internet © Saunders, 1997)

    2. Introduce MO's as mixing atomic orbitals
      1. Chalk Board
      2. Overhead (figure 10.16)
      3. Energy Levels (figure 10.17)
      4. Bond Order

    3. Filling sigma 1s MO's, H21+, H2, H21-, and He2
    4. Filling sigma 2s MO's, Li2, Be2

    5. Sigma 2p MO's (Figure 10.20)

    6. Pi 2p MO's (Figure 10.21)

    7. Energy Level Diagram (Figure 10.22)

    8. Hyperchem

    9. Wilson Molecular Orbitals (local)

    10. MO Energy Levels and Orbitals (Animation from Wilson Group)

    11. Filling MO's for B2 to Ne2

    12. Heteronuclear Diatomics, HF(Animation from Wilson Group)

    13. MO's for larger molecules
      1. Overhead (Transparency 72)


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    Widener University
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    Last Updated Friday, May 25, 2001 1:59:43 PM